history of the term inner city

There’s been a … Historically, the term \"gentry\" referred to landed people; in the twenty-first century, it usually refers to the upper middle class. and which values, exactly? T oday, for many Americans, the word “ghetto” conjures images of run-down and crime-ridden African American segregated areas—“inner cities,” in a common euphemism. As these rising costs reduce the supply of affordable housing, existing residents, who are often black or Hispanic, are displaced. 10 terms. inner city meaning: 1. the central part of a city where people live and where there are often problems because people…. North American sociologists popularized “inner city” in the early 1960s to address urban migration trends that we can trace back to the federal housing policy shifts of the 1930s. Historian Steve Isoardi writes about how the term South Central came to be in his book "The Dark Tree." The word "downtown" is also used to describe the inner city or city centre – primarily in North America – by English-speakers to refer to a city's commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart, and is often contiguous with its central business district. Without necessarily realizing how fluent we are in such loose, figurative language, we hear and use these euphemisms every day. The inner city tends to contain high-density 19th Century housing and wholesale manufacturing. Effectively, Bouie writes for The Daily Beast, redlining “was almost exclusively a tool to force blacks (and other minorities) into particular geographic areas,” which the Federal Home Loan Bank Board would designate with red borders drawn on its residential security maps—hence the term “redlining.”. Liberal Protestants’ missionary brand of urban renewal refocused attention away from the blight and structural obsolescence thought to be responsible for urban decay, and instead brought into focus the cultural pathologies they mapped onto black neighborhoods. The term “inner city” gained popularity through the work of urban theorists and sociologists in the 1960s and 1970s to describe central cities … According to urban historian Bench Ansfield, the term signified both a bounded geographic construct and a set of cultural pathologies inscribed onto urban black communities. Thus, even as it arose in contexts aiming to entice mainline Protestantism back into the cities it had fled, the term accrued its meaning by generating symbolic and geographic distance between white liberal churches and the black communities they sought to help.[2]. City centers hollowed, incomes fell, cities bled revenue and resources; infrastructure deteriorated accordingly. The term reinforces the concept of “white flight,” wherein moving to the suburbs functions as an escape mechanism to avoid living among black people, leaving said minorities behind in city neighborhoods that inevitably become neglected … Our editorial content is not influenced by any commissions we receive. Housing is usually linear, back to back and terraced. Today, the term applies primarily to concentrations of blacks in Northern U.S. cities. Contrary to what the homogenous imagery depicted by Hollywood and history books would lead you to believe, cowboys of color have had a substantial presence on the Western frontier since the 1500s. The journalist and activist Jane Jacobs uses the term “inner city” in her 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in discussion of urban “stagnation and decay.”, At Slate, the writer Jamelle Bouie summarizes the history of “redlining” as a plot by federal policymakers and private banks to starve mortgage lending and investment capital from black neighborhoods, which the Home Owners' Loan Corporation would rank at the bottom of its “desirability” index. Its genesis was the product of an era when a largely suburban mainline Protestantism was negotiating its relationship to American cities. And the term seems to be replacing "minorities," which makes sense, since minorities can be a demographic inaccuracy. In its common usage, it signifies poor, black, urban neighborhoods. Engaging a host of classic works of urban sociology, Duneier describes how social scientists have grappled with poor, black, inner-city neighborhoods in the United States. “Inner city” is a uniquely American term. ... 235 of the Housing Act of 1968 encouraged white flight from the inner city by selling suburban properties to whites and inner-city properties to blacks, thus creating neighborhoods that were racially isolated from other neighborhoods. Many became long-term housing units after the war. What is the main reason for the enactment of Chinese Exclusion Act of 1888, Quota Act of 1921, and National Origins Act ... History Mid-Term 7. inner city - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. From this euphemistic usage, it became a formal term for such areas in the social sciences. But beneath the niceties, a typical discussion about people from the “inner city” is actually coded language for African-Americans. It is the nucleus of the largest metropolitan area in the north of England. Its genesis was the product of an era when a largely suburban mainline Pr… In Canada, in the 1970s, the government introduced Neighbourhood Improvement Programs to deal with urban decay, especially in inner cities. The term somehow applies regardless of whether such neighborhoods are downtown or central to the city grid. In British English, the term "city centre" is most often used, "centre-ville" in French, Stadtzentrum in German, or shìzhōngxīn (市中心) in Chinese). Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted areas in inner cities to clear out slums and create opportunities for higher class housing, businesses, and more. he linked it explicitly to African Americans (and lies about poverty and crime rates), even though African Americans no longer primarily live in cities, and their populations are going down in many parts. First, there’s the coded, so-called “dog whistle” language that partisans use to identify with one another. See more words from the same year Just as easily as our political discourse conflates police brutality and “black-on-black” crime as interchangeable concerns, we likewise render “inner city,” a term coined to describe the aftermath of 20th century redlining and white flight, into a broader, common, ahistorical signifier of black poverty and urban decay. Time Traveler for inner city. Inner city thus originated as a term of containment. Rather, the term “family values” signifies a range of conservative opposition to marriage rights for couples that fall outside hetero parameters, birth control rights, comprehensive sex education in public schools, etc. (as modifier): inner-city schools. This area tends to be run down unless housing has been redeveloped or gentrification has occurred. This prevents them from benefiting fro… We all use the term “inner city” but I doubt we’re all talking about the same geographical area. A housing policy expert explains how federal government policies created the suburbs and the inner city ... A Forgotten History of How ... Reverse-redlining is a term … Despite provisions of the Fair Housing Act, enacted as a title of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, redlining persists. All Free. The term "inner city" first achieved consistent usage through the writings of white liberal Protestants in the US after World War II, contrasting with the growing affluent suburbs. Inner city thus originated as a term of containment. Political machine, in U.S. politics, a party organization, headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state. You can read all about “family values” in its dedicated section on the GOP’s website. Think “family values,” a term with no obvious definition if you read it literally—what sort of family? Learn more. As young, single professionals returned to the city to live, the English dubbed the process, \"gentrification.\" Manchester, city and metropolitan borough, northwestern England. “Inner city” has always been a racially loaded term. 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What does it really mean? a. the parts of a city in or near its centre, esp when they are associated with poverty, unemployment, substandard housing, etc b. It has nothing to do with the actual inner part of a city, and generally refers to a wedge-shaped area within the city limits that separates the downtown area from the suburbs, such as the Bronx in NYC, the South and West Sides of Chicago, Dorchester and Roxbury in Boston… In the most desirable neighborhoods of a given city, the HOLC would grant loans with explicit racial covenants that prohibited deed holders from ever selling their property to a black buyer. Which factor contributed most to the rise of inner city overcrowding in the late nineteenth century? The two terms are used interchangeably in Canada. While gentrification increases the value of properties in areas that suffered from prolonged disinvestment, it also results in rising rents, home and property values. © Complex Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved. According to urban historian Bench Ansfield, the term signified both a bounded geographic construct and a set of cultural pathologies inscribed onto urban black communities. He authorized an exhaustive study to determine how best to help reach and assist the poor. In many respects Manchester could claim to be the first of a new generation of huge industrial cities created in … “We have got this tailspin of culture, in our inner cities in particular,” Ryan told a conservative radio host in 2014, “of men not working and just generations of men not even thinking about working or learning the value and the culture of work, and so there is a real culture problem here.”. "Lured by an expanding economy and the prospect of jobs, the relatively low cost of real estate, a mild climate, and a seemingly less-overt racism," Isoardi states, "African Americans began moving to Los Angeles in large numbers after 1900. Gentrification is a powerful force for economic change in our cities, but it is often accompanied by extreme and unnecessary cultural displacement. Compare central city. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 https://study.com/academy/lesson/white-flight-definition-history-effects.html In fact, the word “cowboy” is believed by some to have emerged as a derogatory term used to describe Black cowhands. The Bronx is an outer borough of New York City. Features. The term inner city arose in this racial liberal context, providing a rhetorical and ideological tool for articulating the role of the church in the nationwide project of urban renewal. It is also used in some European countries such as Romania and Slovenia to refer to poor neighborhoods. “Inner city,” then, isn’t just a general, apolitical description of black poverty, but also a potent hint at that poverty’s causes. History Mid-Term 6. The primary goal of a political machine is maintaining control, and abuses of power are not uncommon. North American sociologists popularized “inner city” in the early 1960s to address urban migration trends that we can trace back to the federal housing policy shifts of the 1930s. History of Inner City In 1982, Dr. Bill Bright, founder of Campus Crusade for Christ®, was burdened by the lack of the ministry's involvement in the inner cities of America. El Barrio is an example of an inner-city area, although one with an extreme version of the issues usually associated with inner cities. [4] Also, some inner-city areas in various places have undergone the socioeconomic process of gentrification, especially since the 1990s. The term has deep cultural meaning in the United States, especially in the context of segregation and civil rights; as such, it has been widely used in the country to refer to inner-city neighborhoods that are mainly African American and/or poor. The term "inner city" first achieved consistent usage through the writings of white liberal Protestants in the US after World War II, contrasting with the growing affluent suburbs. The first known use of inner city was in 1958. Federal policymakers literally created the inner city, and then the very same policymakers wrecked it. investing in inner-city parks, there are huge disparities in what parks look like in North Minneapolis vs. Southwest Minneapolis. The term, according Jakob Lestchinsky's article in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, originated with fifteenth-century Venice and comes from the Italian getto, or iron foundry, a nearby landmark. When the current president used the “inner cities” repeatedly in debates (and really, isn’t that enough of a reason to retire the phrase?) COMPLEX participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means COMPLEX gets paid commissions on purchases made through our links to retailer sites. Not that our nation’s running discussion of “the inner city” reflects this; for President Obama, Secretary Clinton, and Senator Sanders, “inner city” is a but a rhetorical tic in official remarks about gun violence and youth jobs programs. Still, anyone might include these neighborhoods in discussion of “inner city” violence, “inner city” poverty, and such. The connotation of “inner city” may vary across audience and context, but there’s no big hint of allegiance or biases in the term itself. In their wake, working class blacks remained. [5], The examples and perspective in this article, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "BBC - Higher Bitesize Geography - Urban : Revision, Page4", "Unsettling 'Inner City': Liberal Protestantism and the Postwar Origins of a Keyword in Urban Studies", https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/144470328.pdf, Demographics of Atlanta: Race and ethnicity, Unsettling 'Inner City': Liberal Protestantism and the Postwar Origins of a Keyword in Urban Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inner_city&oldid=1007713291, Articles with limited geographic scope from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 February 2021, at 15:15. A term used in the United States referring to a place in a large city that is mostly populated by poor minorities. Immigrant backlash. 14. Alternatively, there’s the relatively benign shorthand that apparently favors no particular agenda. [1] Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. History Mid-Term 5. The term inner city has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts, sometimes but not exclusively referring to African-American neighborhoods, in a downtown or city centre area. Politics is a cipher of euphemisms. an older part of a city, densely populated and usually deteriorating, inhabited mainly by poor, often minority, groups: Struggling schools in the inner city face substantial challenges to prepare students for college. While the trouble will be greatest in black inner-city neighborhoods, other places are also certain to have burgeoning youth-crime problems that will spill over into upscale central-city … “Inner city,” for instance—a term that you’re as likely to hear in the campaign rhetoric of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton as you are in remarks from Paul Ryan, the Republican Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. “White flight,” another term popular among social scientists of the 1960s, describes the general trend of white residents altogether fleeing several major U.S. cities—most notably Detroit, Cleveland, and Oakland—for local suburbs, packing their wealth and taking it with them. In U.S. history, ‘antebellum’ is primarily used to refer to the period leading up to the American Civil War and has become a focal point for controversy. 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